to the rich cotton states of the southwest; many others were sold and moved locally. Du Bois and 28 other prominent, African-American men met secretly at Niagara Falls, Ontario. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Retrieved June 14, 2007. A new generation of powerful African-American political leaders and organizations device that lets you scan essays for plagiarsm also came to the fore. Retrieved March 18, 2007. Researchers concluded, "As a rule, planters seem to prefer Negroes to whites as tenants and coppers." 105 Once mechanization came to cotton (after 1945 the tenants and sharecroppers were largely surplus; they moved to towns and cities. 9 They were forced to adjust to a new way of life. Using a combination of provisions such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, states dramatically decreased black voter registration and turnout, in some cases to zero.
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California would be admitted as a free state but the South would receive a new fugitive slave act which required Northerners to return slaves who escaped to the North to their owners. African Americans have the highest imprisonment rate of any major ethnic group in the world. Fifty-three percent remained in the Southern United States, while 40 percent lived in the Northeast and North Central states and 7 percent in the West. Fears of an imbalance in Congress led to the 1820 Missouri Compromise that required states to be admitted to the union in pairs, one slave and one free. "Freddie Stowers, Corporal, United States Army". New Deal edit WPA poster promoting the benefits of employment Main article: New Deal African Americans The New Deal did not have a specific program for blacks only, but it sought to incorporate them in all the relief programs that it began. 98 A rival federal agency was the Public Works Administration (PWA headed by long-time civil rights activist Harold Ickes.